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Energy at home

Energy Performance Certificates explained


  • Understand the energy performance of your home
  • Identify areas for improvement
  • Make changes to save money and reduce emissions

What are Energy Performance Certificates?

Much like the multi-coloured sticker on new appliances, Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) tell you how energy efficient a building is and give it a rating from A (very efficient) to G (inefficient). They’ll tell you how costly it will be to heat and light your property, and what its carbon dioxide emissions are likely to be.

An EPC also includes information on what the energy efficiency rating could be if you made the recommended improvements and highlights cost effective ways to achieve a better rating. Even if you rent your home, you could still implement some improvements noted on the EPC, such as switching to more energy efficient light bulbs.

EPCs are valid for 10 years from the date of issue.

Why get an EPC?

If you’re looking to sell or rent out your home, you need an EPC before it goes on the market. You must get an approved domestic energy assessor to produce the EPC.

If you’re looking for a property to buy or rent a property, the EPC lets you compare the energy efficiency of different properties easily. Properties in Scotland must display its EPC rating, for example, near the boiler or meter cupboard. 

The EPC also gives recommendations to improve your rating. If you make any of the energy efficiency recommendations outlined in your EPC, you may want to get a new EPC to factor in these improvements.

What can you expect to see on your EPC?

It’s worth noting that not all EPCs look the same. In this guide, we are using a 2017 certificate as an example. Older certificates will have most of this information, although it may look a bit different and may be in a different order.

Please note that EPCs in England, Wales and Northern Ireland have moved to a new format, which looks different to the example we have used here from Scotland. The sections and information covered are identical.

Who produces energy reports and EPCs?

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, only accredited domestic energy assessors can produce valid EPCs.

  • For a list of approved EPC organisations in England and Wales, visit Landmark to view the energy performance certificate register.
  • For a list of approved EPC organisations in Northern Ireland, visit Landmark for Northern Ireland.

If you’re selling or renting your home through an estate agent, they may be able to arrange for the EPC to be completed for you.


In Scotland, only organisations approved by the Scottish Government can produce valid EPCs. Visit the Scottish EPC Register to find a list of approved EPC organisations.

If you’re selling your home through a selling agent, you should ask them to arrange for a Home Report (which includes an energy report and EPC) to be made.

Energy reports can only be produced by chartered surveyors registered with RICS.

Further information

Last updated: 4 July 2024