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Energy at home

Guide to Energy Performance Certificates


  • Understand the energy performance of your home
  • Identify areas for improvement
  • Make changes to save money and reduce emissions

What are Energy Performance Certificates?

Much like the multi-coloured sticker on new appliances, Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) tell you how energy efficient a building is and give it a rating from A (very efficient) to G (inefficient). They’ll tell you how costly it will be to heat and light your property, and what its carbon dioxide emissions are likely to be.

An EPC also includes information on what the energy efficiency rating could be if you made the recommended improvements and highlights cost effective ways to achieve a better rating. Even if you rent your home, you could still implement some improvements noted on the EPC, such as switching to more energy efficient light bulbs.

EPCs are valid for 10 years from the date of issue.

Why get an EPC?

Your property’s EPC needs to be available to potential buyers as soon as you start to market your property for sale or rent. You must get an approved domestic energy assessor to produce the EPC. If you’re buying or renting a property, an EPC allows you to compare the energy efficiency of different properties easily.

An EPC also highlights the energy efficiency improvements you could make, how much they will cost, and how much you could save. This can be useful when looking to improve your current property, or if you’re looking to buy and improve.

Bear in mind that any figures for energy use and potential savings are for a typical household in that property – they’re not tailored to you, your family or housemates, or your lifestyle.

If you do implement any of the energy efficiency recommendations outlined in your EPC, you may wish to get a new EPC to include these improvements.

What can you expect to see on your EPC?

It’s worth noting that not all EPCs look the same. In this guide, we are using a 2017 certificate as an example. Older certificates will have most of this information, although it may look a bit different and may be in a different order.

Please note that EPCs in England, Wales and Northern Ireland have recently moved to a new format, which looks different to the example we have used here from Scotland. The sections and information covered are identical.

Who produces energy reports and EPCs?

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, only accredited domestic energy assessors can produce valid EPCs.

  • For a list of approved EPC organisations in England and Wales, visit Landmark to view the energy performance certificate register.
  • For a list of approved EPC organisations in Northern Ireland, visit Landmark for Northern Ireland.

If you are selling or renting your home through an estate agent, they may be able to arrange for the EPC to be completed for you.


In Scotland, only organisations approved by the Scottish Government can produce valid EPCs. Visit the Scottish EPC Register to find a list of approved EPC organisations.

If you are selling your home through a selling agent, you should ask them to arrange for a Home Report (which will include an energy report and EPC) to be made.

Energy reports can only be produced by chartered surveyors registered with RICs.

Further information


Last updated: 1 April 2022