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Generating renewable energy

Solar panels

Generate cheap, green electricity from sunlight


  • cut your electricity bills
  • reduce your carbon footprint
  • receive payments for extra energy you generate

Solar electricity panels, also known as photovoltaics (PV), capture the sun’s energy and convert it into electricity that you can use in your home.

By installing solar panels you can generate your own renewable electricity.

How do solar PV cells work?

Solar PV cells are made from layers of semi-conducting material, usually silicon.

When light shines on the material, electrons are knocked loose, creating a flow of electricity. The cells don’t need direct sunlight to work, they can work on a cloudy day. However, the stronger the sunshine, the more electricity generated.

Solar PV cells are grouped into modules, and modules are usually grouped into solar arrays. Modules and arrays come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

Most PV systems are made up of panels that fit on top of your roof, but you can also install on the ground, or fit solar tiles.

The electricity generated is direct current (DC), whereas the electricity you use for household appliances is alternating current (AC). An inverter is installed along with the system to convert DC electricity to AC.

Solar tiles and slates

Solar tiles are designed to be used in place of ordinary roof tiles. A system made up of solar tiles will typically cost about twice as much as an equivalent panel system.

Solar tile systems are not normally as cost-effective as panel systems, and are usually only considered where panels are not considered appropriate for aesthetic or planning reasons.

Are solar panels right for me?

Thinking of installing solar panels?

Use the solar energy calculator to get a better idea of the benefits you may see from installing a solar PV system.

Use the calculator

Benefits of solar electricity

Cut your electricity bills

Sunlight is free, so once you’ve paid for the initial installation, your electricity costs will be reduced. Find out how much you could save by using the Solar Energy Calculator.

Cut your carbon footprint

Solar electricity is green, renewable energy. A typical home solar PV system could save around one tonne of carbon per year (depending on where you live in the UK).

Getting the most out of your solar PV system

Reduce your electricity use

During daylight hours, you’ll be generating electricity even on cloudy days, but if you’re using more power around your home than your panels are generating, or it’s during the evening and your panels are not generating any power, you’ll be using electricity from the grid.

Reducing your electricity use can help lower your bills and reduce your carbon footprint. If you’re claiming a Smart Export Guarantee tariff, you’ll receive a payment for every unit of electricity you export. Remember to turn devices off and avoid standby, and see our energy saving quick wins for more tips to reduce your energy use.

Use more electricity during the day

As your PV system will be working at its peak during daylight hours, it’s a good idea to think about reorganising domestic activities such as washing, dishwashing and ironing. If you’re home most of the day, then this will be easier to do, but if you work during the day then try setting up timers for your dishwasher and washing machine.

Insulate your home

If you have electric heating, programming your timers to come on during daylight hours will help you save money on your electricity bills. To keep that heat in your home for longer, insulate your roof or loft, and add insulation to your cavity wall or solid wall. Draught-proof your doors and windows as well to prevent draughts.

Combine with other renewable systems

You can combine PV with other space-heating renewable technologies such as heat pumps, solar thermal systems and wind turbines. These technologies work well with each other, as PV can be set up to help power a heat pump, for example, or several of these systems can feed into a thermal store.

Install a PV diverter

Most of the time your solar PV system either:

  • Isn’t generating enough energy for your household’s demand, and is supplemented by importing electricity from the grid, or
  • Is generating excess electricity surplus to your demand, and exporting that electricity back to the grid.

If you are getting export payments via Smart Export Guarantee or if you aren’t getting paid for exports at all, you might be looking for a way to use more of your generated energy within your home.

Instead of sending it to the grid, that surplus electricity could power the immersion heater in your hot water tank, storing hot water for you to use later.

A PV diverter would allow you to do this, provided you have a hot water cylinder. This is typically the lowest upfront cost option for increasing in-home use, particularly if you install at the same time as your panel installation. It is a reliable and low maintenance piece of kit that directs your excess energy to power your immersion heater, instead of exporting to the grid.

On its own, excess solar energy is unlikely to meet all of your hot water needs, but it can help reduce your bills.

If you’re interested in using PV diverter, speak with your installer. They might also suggest increasing the number of panels on your roof to provide more electricity for your hot water needs.

Other options for renewable hot water include solar water heating, or fitting a whole-house heating system such as a heat pump or biomass boiler.

Costs, savings and financial support

Export payments

With any domestic PV system, there will be times when the electricity you generate is more than you can use or store, so the surplus will be exported to the grid to be used by somebody else. If you want to be paid for exporting, you need to make sure you’re getting an export payment. If you were able to claim the feed-in tariff (this closed to new applications at the end of March 2019), then you will be getting export payments as part of that. If not, you need to find an energy company that will pay you for this surplus.

Following the closure of the Feed-in Tariff scheme to new solar PV system applicants in March 2019, the Smart Export Guarantee (SEG) was introduced to provide financial support to small-scale renewable energy generators for the electricity they export to the grid. The savings from solar PV with the SEG are considerably higher than without it.

In Great Britain, the Smart Export Guarantee pays you for the electricity you generate.

In Northern Ireland, you can get paid for any surplus you export – usually estimated on the basis of how much you generate. Several organisations offer this service, so if you’re interested we recommend doing some research to find one that works for you.


PV installation costs can also be affected by:

  • Typically, the more electricity the system can generate, the more it costs – but the more it could save.
  • Larger systems are usually more cost-effective than smaller systems (up to 4kWp).
  • PV panels about the same price per kWp, but PV tiles cost much more versus the equivalent panel system.
  • Panels built into a roof are more expensive than those that sit on top.

Savings (PV only)

London, South East England

Annual savings

Simple payback

Aberystwyth, Wales

Annual savings

Simple payback

Manchester, North England

Annual savings

Simple payback

Stirling, Scotland

Annual savings

Simple payback

Northern Ireland

Solar panels were eligible for Feed-In Tariff (FIT) payments. The FIT scheme closed to new applications on 31 March 2019. If you have already installed solar PV with a MCS certificate dated on or before 31 March 2019 you may still be able to apply. For more information about the FITs scheme and recent changes please, visit our Feed-In Tariff page.

Please note: the Northern Ireland Renewables Obligation Certificates (NIROCs) scheme is now closed to all technologies since April 2017 and you can’t receive payments from generation tariffs any more. However, you can still cut your electricity bills by using the free electricity generated by solar PV.

Costs can vary between installers and products, so we recommend getting quotes from at least three installers.

Annual savings when using the energy you generate


If you’re planning to install a solar PV system in your home, you need to register the energy device with your Distribution Network Operator (DNO). The DNO is the company responsible for bringing electricity to your home. Usually, your installer will register the device for you.

The UK Government has advice on how to register your new energy device in England, Scotland and Wales.


Solar PV needs little maintenance. Keep an eye on nearby trees to ensure they don’t begin to overshadow them.

In the UK, panels that are tilted at 15° or more have the benefit of being cleaned by rainfall to ensure optimal performance. Debris is more likely to accumulate if you have ground mounted panels, or if you live in an area with more dust in the air. In these cases, you might need to have the panels cleaned.

Once fitted, your installer should leave written details of any maintenance checks that you should carry out from time to time to ensure everything is working properly. This should include details of the main inverter fault signals and key trouble-shooting guidance. Ideally, your installer should demonstrate this to you at the point of handover.

Keeping a close eye on your system and the amount of electricity it’s generating (alongside the weather conditions) will familiarise you with what to expect and alert you to when something might be wrong.

The panels should last 25 years or more, but the inverter is likely to need replacing sometime during this period, at a cost of about £800.

Consult with your installer for exact maintenance requirements before you commit to installing a solar PV system.

Last updated: 20 July 2021