Passivhaus, literally passive house in English, refers to buildings created to rigorous energy efficient design standards so that they maintain an almost constant temperature.
Passivhaus buildings are so well constructed, insulated and ventilated that they retain heat from the sun and the activities of their occupants, requiring very little additional heating or cooling.
Where did Passivhaus come from?
The Passivhaus Institute in Germany developed the energy efficient building principles, following a research project to investigate why low energy buildings often didn’t deliver on their expected energy saving potential.
Builders of energy efficient homes and buildings can apply to have their buildings certified by the Passivhaus Institute. To achieve the certification, you must use the specific Passivhaus planning system, which allows you to adjust your design until your property reaches the required energy efficient standard.
While we’re not all in the position of creating a new home from scratch, we can apply the principle of reducing energy demand in our homes through energy efficient design to older homes too. Here, we find out how Passivhaus buildings function and offer some tips on how to improve the energy efficiency of your home.
How are Passivhaus properties built?
The methodology behind a Passivhaus building differs from some carbon neutral buildings, which use a combination of energy efficiency and clean energy generation to offset any energy use.
A Passivhaus building aims not to use as much energy in the first place by being effectively sealed against the elements.
The actual construction methods of Passivhaus buildings will vary but they will all have some features in common, including:
Far greater insulation than typical UK properties.
Triple glazing, with insulated frames.
Impressive airtightness levels (around 20x more than a standard build).
Mechanical ventilation, with heat recovery system attached.
Do you need to heat a Passivhaus?
A Passivhaus building aims to reduce the need to heat the building to such an extent that you don’t need a conventional heating system. However, there will be some heating mechanism attached to the property – often it takes the form of a small heating element attached to the ventilation system.
These use very little energy and usually only kick in once the outside temperature drops below freezing. A passive house will also need to have a mechanism to heat water – it could be solar heating or an air source heat pump – both of which produce no emissions at the point of use.
Are there any Passivhaus developments in the UK?
You can find Passivhaus developments all over the UK.
Currently, the largest residential Passivhaus development is in Plymouth, according to the Passivhaus Trust. Primrose Park, a development of 72 houses, came about because the land was too expensive for commercial developers. As a result, the council offered the former school site to affordable housing developers for a token £1.
Energy costs are so low for tenants living in Passivhaus properties that they’re far less likely to default or get into arrears with their rent. Hastoe Housing Association in the south of England claimed that rent arrears were virtually zero on its Passivhaus development.
There are also several developments in progress in Scotland. In March 2021, Kingdom Housing Association was granted planning permission by Fife Council to build 30 new Passivhaus homes near Dundee. And in Loch Lomond, a social housing scheme in the Trossachs National Park will include 15 passive house affordable homes, as part of a strategy to address fuel poverty and preserve the natural environment.
Can you retrofit a building to Passivhaus standards?
Though the energy efficient Passivhaus building technique has higher upfront costs, it has significant cost saving and energy security implications – something that’s of interest to local authorities, housing associations and individuals who are motivated to create sustainable buildings.
You can retrofit older properties so that they function along the same principles, although it’s not usually possible to reach the same levels of insulation as a specially designed property.
The Passivhaus Institute does have a separate certification that recognises appropriate retrofitting work, which has a lower threshold than for a full Passivhaus building.
What lessons can we learn from the Passivhaus principle?
If the UK is to reach its emission reduction targets, it will need to apply some of the lessons from Passivhaus buildings to the wider housing stock.
While most of us are unlikely to be able to create fully functioning Passivhaus type buildings, we can insulate and ventilate our homes effectively, to ensure that they are as energy efficient as possible – helping to lower energy costs in the long-term.
If you’ve been inspired to make improvements to your property, check out our advice on home insulation or take a look at whether a low carbon heating system, such as solar water or a heat pump, could work for you.
Main image credit: National Renewable Energy Lab via Flickr